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Orthopaedic Procedures, Surgeries and Orthopaedic Implants (Joints)


Introduction: The Greek word 'orthos’ denotes to ‘straight or correct’ and ‘paideia’ means ‘nurturing of children’. This Expression was used for treatment of children related to skeletal deformities such as knock-knees and bow legs. But now Orthopaedics is the field of medicine concerned with the study and treatment of the correction & prevention of disorders/deformities related to the musculosketal system (bones, joints, nerves, muscle, tendons, and ligaments). Joint diseases like arthritis often developed in old age people and orthopaedic therapy, medicines are used as primary treatment for relief from pain and swelling. Besides this, orthopaedic surgery is used to correct congenital defect or restoring a broken arm, leg and shoulder from sudden trauma such as severe burns & injury. The majority of orthopaedic surgeries are performed on the ankle, knee, hip, wrist, elbow, shoulder and spine. Surgery can be an open cut (traditional) operation or with an arthroscope.

1.  Carpal Tunnel Release

It is a surgery to treat carpal tunnel syndrome. During this surgery, the surgeon cuts through a ligament in the wrist to make more room for nerves and tendons to pass through. This can improve the symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome. There are two main types of carpal tunnel release surgery: open and endoscopic. Treating doctor has to select the method as per individual medical case.

2.  Debridement of Skin / Muscle / Bone / Fracture

This is one of the most common orthopaedic treatments for broken and fractured bones. Osteomyelitis (bone infection) is caused due to different bacteria in the bloodstream such as Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas. An open wound over bone from an accident or recent surgery or injection in or around a bone is the underlying cause for Osteomyelitis.

Debridement: Removal of unhealthy tissue from a wound to gain complete healing is referred as debridement. There are different ways for debridement such as surgery, by using chemical, mechanical or autolytic. Bone debridement is performed until punctuate bleeding is noted.

3.  Body Joint Replacement / Prosthesis 

One of the most important and major orthopaedic procedures is the replacement of any joint of the body. This method involves removing the injured joint and replacing it with an artificial one that moves just like the original. Several conditions like severe joint pain, disability, accident, disease or even arthritis can lead patients to consider joint replacement surgery. This replacement surgery can include the hip, knee, shoulder, ankle or other joints.

Prosthesis is a device designed to replace a missing part of the body, or to make a part of the body work better.

4.  Total Hip Replacement

A total hip (joint) replacement, is also known as hip arthroplasty. It is a surgery where hip joint is replaced with an artificial one. Orthopaedic surgeon performs this operation from behind the hip, to the side of the hip, or from in front of the hip. These surgeries may also be called mini, modified, minimally invasive, or muscle-sparing surgeries. Total hip replacement with anterior approach refers to surgeries done from in front of the hip.

5.  Incise Finger Tendon Sheath

A tendon is a hard band of fibrous tissue which joins muscle to the bone. An injury, old age or improper repetitive motion can cause inflammation or damaging of tendon sheath around flexor tendons. Due to which sheath becomes too tight to allow normal movement. The need for tendon release may arise due to conditions such as tenosynovitis, trauma disorders, or fractures and dislocations. The purpose of treatment is to restore normal function. Incise Finger Tendon Sheath is a surgical procedure which involves incision of a tendon sheath in which tissue surrounding a tendon (tendon sheath or epitenon) is cut.

6. Knee Arthroscopy and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) is the major ligament which plays a major role to keep the knee sturdy. Mostly sport persons are prone to ACL injuries however it can happen to anyone due to sudden physical trauma or strenuous physical activity. Damaged ACL ligaments are painful and serious injuries that can be treated using orthopaedic reconstruction procedures. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is a surgical tissue graft replacement of the anterior cruciate ligament, located in the knee, to restore its function after an injury. The torn ligament is removed from the knee before the graft is inserted in an arthroscopic procedure.

7. Knee Arthroscopy and Chondroplasty

A small well lit camera is used with fibre optic cables to conduct arthroscopic surgery which is less invasive than traditional surgery. The camera allows the surgeon to look at the surgical area more clearly. Arthroscopic surgery is conducted for different types of injuries to the knee, hip, shoulder and other areas of the body. It allows for less tissue damage, smaller incisions and a much faster healing time than traditional surgical procedures.

Arthroscopic chondroplasty is commonly performed during knee arthroscopy. In this process a thin surgical instrument is inserted with small incisions around your knee. It is a method used to treat and line mild to moderate cartilage tear. It is utilized to treat incidentally-foundchondral lesions during surgery.

8. Knee Arthroscopy and Meniscectomy

An arthroscopic surgery which is meant to remove torn meniscus and/or cartilage tissues from the knee is called knee arthroscopy and meniscectomy. Thereafter knee is lined with smooth and stable tissues rather than rough, torn, and unstable edges. This surgery has a very high success rate with smooth recovery

9. Knee Arthroscopy Repair of Both Menisci

The meniscus is a C-shaped piece of cartilage in the knee. There are two menisci in each knee joint, the medial meniscus on the inner side and the lateral meniscus on the outer side. These provide stability and protection to the knee.

Meniscus tears are a very common injury. Arthroscopic meniscus repair is a surgical procedure used to treat a torn meniscus, which is the cartilage between your thigh bone and shin bone in the knee. The menisci can be torn through sports injuries, or through natural tissue degeneration due to old age or any other sickness where tissue weakens from everyday wear and tear over time. Conservative Treatment for this problem starts with conservative methods first but when tear does not respond to conservative treatment, doctor may advise this procedure after analysing type and location of the tear.

10. Knee replacement

Knee replacement is also called as knee arthroplasty. When knee is damaged by an injury, sickness, or due to old age wear and tear; an artificial knee replacement may be considered. In this surgery, joint surfaces are replaced by prostheses. These are plastic and metal parts that are used for normal joint function. It is most commonly performed for osteoarthritis, and also for other knee diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis to relieve pain and disability.

11. Laminectomy

Laminectomy is one of the surgery which is used commonly for back bone health problem. In this surgery, a surgeon takes away the rear portion of one or more spinal bones (vertebrae). The reason is to provide access to the spinal cord or to relieve pressure on nerves. If there is any nerve compression, that can also be removed. This helps relieve pressure on the spinal cord or the nerve roots that may be caused by injury, herniated disk, spinal stenosis (narrowing of the canal), or tumours.

12. Low Back Intervertebral Disc Surgery

The intervertebral discs that work as a cushion between the bones of the spine swell or rupture over time due to certain health issues. Ruptured (Bulging) disc, herniated disc are certain conditions due to degeneration of intervertebral disc The disc either compresses or squeezes out into the spinal canal or it thins and deteriorates under the pressure of the vertebrae.

13.  Lumbar Spinal Fusion

As the name suggests, spinal fusion (at any level of the spine) is a surgical procedure to connect two or more bones of your spine together permanently. If the doctor decides to have minimally invasive lumbar spinal fusion, then a much smaller cut (incision) is used during surgery. It is a great relief for those who have constant back health problems of different types. Degeneration of disc, injury, fractures or deformities in the spine and other issues such as osteoporosis can be the underlying reasons for the same

14.  Removal of Support Implant

It is a surgery to take out the devices used to fix the bone. Support implants can be of metal pins, screws, plates, surgical wires etc that helps to hold and keep the broken bones aligned together until they heal. In some medical cases, these implants are used temporary and for others it can be permanent fixing. However when used in young children, any type of implant needs to be removed or replaced due to bone growth. Adults can choose to remove implants once the treating doctors’ team approves it to be safe (or necessary) for the patient.

15.  Repair Fracture of Radius bone (Ulna)

Distal radius fractures are often associated with distal radial ulnar joint (DRUJ) injuries. Different types of surgery is performed by an experienced orthopaedic surgeon depending on the type of fracture

16. Repair Fracture of the Distal Part of Radius

The radius is the larger of the two bones of the forearm. The end toward the wrist is called the distal end. A fracture of the distal radius occurs when the area of the radius near the wrist breaks. A distal radius fracture, also known as wrist fracture is a usual fracture. This indicates breaking of the radius bone, near to the wrist. Mostly it happens because of  sports injury or accident. Treatment options for distal radius fractures include non-operative management, external fixation, and internal fixation or as suggested by the orthopaedics specialist.

17. Repair of Ankle Fracture (bimalleolar type)

Medical procedure to fix broken ankle can be performed in many different ways as per specialist doctor’s analysis and decision. Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) is a type of surgery that is used to normalise and heal a broken bone. Ankle fusion also known as ankle arthrodesis is done by an operation to join the damaged ankle bones. In some cases, ankle replacement surgery can also be done with an artificial implant to treat a totally damaged ankle joint.

18. Repair of Ankle Fracture (fibula)

Ankle fractures are very common and often happen when the malleoli are broken due to fall, vehicle accident or twisting of the ankle badly. The upper part of the ankle joint comes from the tibia (shin) and the fibula (outer leg). The tibia forms the front, rear, and inner part of the ankle joint. The lower fibula forms the outer part of the ankle joint. The ends of these bones are called malleoli. There are two malleoli on the tibia (medial and posterior) and one on the fibula (lateral). Surgical treatment of ankle fractures allows patients to regain ankle function while the bones and joint heal.

19.  Repair of Femoral Neck Fracture

Femoral neck fracture happens when the upper portion of the femur (leg bone) is damaged, just below the ball and socket joint. There are two main types of hip fracture, intracapsular and extracapsular. A fractured neck of femur (broken hip) is a serious injury, especially in older people. There are different ways to fix the broken bone and fracture treatment options are based on the patient’s age and activity level.

20. Repair of femoral shaft fracture

Femur is the thighbone that is the longest and strongest bone in the body. When there is a break anywhere along this length of this femur bone, it is called a femoral shaft fracture. It is not easily broken and this solid femur bone is damaged only if the force or hit is with high force which can cause femur fracture. This type of broken leg almost always requires surgery to heal.

21. Repair of rotator cuff tendon

The rotator cuff is the muscles and tendons that hold the shoulder in place. This can be due to an injury or normal wear and tear with old age. Rotator cuff problem happens commonly in the age group of 55-85.  If injured, the rotator cuff may need surgery to repair it.

22.  Repair of Intertrochanteric Fracture

When a part (crack) or total break in the bone occurs, it is called a fracture. There can be either a single break or multiple breaks in a bone. Intertrochanteric fracture is the one which involves the greater and/or lesser trochanters of the femur. The most common treatment for intertrochanteric fractures is surgery. In most cases, surgery is recommended because this fracture can take a long time to heal on its own. One of the most common surgical treatments for this type of hip fracture is an open reduction and internal fixation.

23. Shoulder Arthroscopy and Debridement

Removal of unhealthy tissue from a wound to gain complete healing is referred as debridement.  Shoulder arthroscopy and debridement refers to minimally-invasive shoulder surgery where the orthopaedic surgeon uses a small camera, called an arthroscope, which is inserted into the shoulder joint to extract bad /injured tissues from the shoulder joint and treatment is given as per an individual patient’s age and condition.

24. Shoulder Arthroscopy and Decompression

Shoulder arthroscopy and decompression is a procedure used to treat shoulder impingement, which occurs when the tendons in the rotator cuff muscles are squeezed or pinched by the surrounding structures in the shoulder.

25. Shoulder Arthroscopy / Distal Clavicle Excision

Shoulder arthroscopy is a surgical procedure used to see the image of damaged bone through a camera on a monitor to confirm diagnose and treatment method. This method helps to resolve various problems inside the shoulder joint and in the space surrounding the rotator cuff.  Distal Clavicle Excision is a minimally-invasive procedure helps to relieve pain and loss of motion in the shoulder from arthritis or impingement.

26. Total Joint Reconstruction (Arthroplasty)

An artificial implant also referred as prosthesis made of metal, plastic or ceramic that can function or support the same way as original body joint part is used to replace a damaged joint. The prosthesis is designed to replicate all the normal function of that healthy joint. Mostly total joint reconstruction is done for hip and knee however replacement surgery can be performed on ankle, wrist, shoulder and elbow also. In this procedure, damaged bone or cartilage is removed and replaced with prosthetic components.