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How many Types of Bone Tumours are there?

Difference between healthy and cancer-struck bone

While pain or stiffness can be internal symptoms of any illness, unexplained swelling or lump occurring on skin can be warning signal which needs immediate attention for medical help. Not all growth in the body is tumour but it definitely requires proper medical check-up. Timely medical consultation, different laboratory and imaging tests and biopsy are few of different ways to confirm malignancy of any unusal growth. Classification is given as under:

Benign Tumours

Benign tumours aren’t cancerous; they do not spread, do not destroy bone tissue, and are rarely a threat to life. In fact, benign (non-cancerous) bone tumours are more common than malignant ones.

While benign bone tumours typically stay in place and are unlikely to be fatal, they’re still abnormal cells and may require treatment. Benign tumours can grow and could compress your healthy bone tissue and cause future issues.

Malignant Tumours

Malignant tumours of the bone are cancerous growths that start in bone or cartilage cells and also have the potential to spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body. Cancer can begin in any type of bone tissue. Most bone cancers are called sarcomas. Bone Cancer destroys normal bone tissue.

Types of Benign Tumour

  1. Nonossifying Fibroma Unicameral: Nonossifying fibroma unicameral is a simple solitary bone cyst. It’s usually found in the leg and occurs most often in children and adolescents.

  2. Giant Cell Tumours: Giant cell tumours grow aggressively. They occur in adults. They’re found in the rounded end of the bone and not in the growth plate. These are very rare tumours.

  3. Enchondroma : An enchondroma is a cartilage cyst that grows inside the bone marrow. When they occur, they begin in children and persist as adults. They tend to be part of syndromes called Ollier’s and Mafucci’s syndrome. Enchondromas occur in the hands and feet as well as the long bones of the arm and thigh.

  4. Fibrous Dysplasia: Fibrous dysplasia is a gene mutation that makes bones fibrous and vulnerable to fracture.
  5. Aneurysmal Bone Cyst: An aneurysmal bone cyst is an abnormality of blood vessels that begins in the bone marrow. It can grow rapidly and can be particularly destructive because it affects growth plates.

Types of Malignant Tumours

Bone Cancer can be Classified in Two Parts:
  1. Primary Bone Cancer : When cancer starts in bone or cartilage cells, it is called primary bone cancer and also known as bone sarcoma. Primary bone cancer is far less common than cancer that spreads to the bones. Primary bone cancer is rare and found in only 1 % of all cancer patients.

Primary bone cancers are the most serious of all bone cancers. It can build up on the surface of the bone, in the outer layer or from the centre of the bone. As a tumour grows, cancer cells multiply and destroy the bone. If left untreated, primary bone cancer can spread to other parts of the body.

2. Secondary (Metastatic) Bone CancerThe term secondary bone cancer means that the cancer started somewhere else in the body and then spread to the bone. It usually affects older adults and treated differently than primary bone cancer.

The most common way for metastases to spread is through the bloodstream. When cancer cells break away from a tumour, they can travel to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or the lymph system. (Lymph vessels are much like blood vessels, except they carry a clear fluid and immune system cells.)

Cancer that metastasizes (spreads) to the bones from other parts of the body such as breast, lung, kidney, prostate, hip-bone (pelvis), ribs and skull is called metastatic cancer. These are named for the organ or tissue in which it began, for example, breast cancer that has spread to the lungs is called “metastatic breast cancer to the lungs”.

Once cancer has spread to the bones or to other parts of the body it’s rarely able to be cured. Still, it often can be treated to shrink, stop, or slow its growth. Even if a cure is no longer possible, treating the cancer may be able to help you live longer and feel better.

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