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Thyroid and Kidney Cancer

Cancer Present in the Thyroid Glands is called Thyroid Cancer

Generally, thyroid cancer occurs as a small lump or swelling around the thyroid glands located on the front side of the neck. Thyroid glands produce hormones to regulate human body’s metabolism. These small lumps, known as nodules, are common and mostly benign. Symptoms include hoarseness, difficulty swallowing, an enlarged neck node or a persistent cough. Thyroid cancer is more common in women than men and often diagnosed in the age group of 25 to 65 years.

4) Thyroid Cancer

The thyroid is a small gland in the front of the neck just below the voicebox (larynx). It is made up of two parts called lobes.Thyroid cancer is uncommon. It’s more common in women than men.

Types of Thyroid Cancer

There are different types of thyroid cancer. The information here is on diagnosing and treating follicular and papillary.

  • Papillary: This is the most common type of thyroid cancer. It’s slow-growing and is found more in younger people, mostly women.
     
  • Follicular: This is a less common type of thyroid cancer. It’s usually found in young or middle-aged people.

These two types of thyroid cancer are sometimes grouped together and called differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). They are often treated in the same way. Most people with differentiated thyroid cancers are cured.

Other Types of Thyroid Cancer

  • Medullary: Medullary thyroid cancer is a rare type of thyroid cancer that can run in families
     
  • Anaplastic: Anaplastic thyroid cancer is a rare type of thyroid cancer that is fast-growing.
     
  • Thyroid lymphoma: This type of thyroid cancer starts in the lymph tissue of the thyroid. The lymph tissue is part of the body’s lymphatic system. Most thyroid lymphomas are a type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).

Thyroid Cancer Symptoms

In most people, thyroid cancer develops very slowly. The most common symptom of thyroid cancer is a painless lump in the neck that gradually gets bigger. However, most thyroid lumps are benign (non-cancerous).

Other symptoms include:

  • hoarse voice, for no obvious reason, that doesn’t go away after a few weeks
     
  • difficulty swallowing – this can be caused by a thyroid tumour pressing on the gullet (oesophagus)
     
  • difficulty breathing – this can be caused by a thyroid tumour pressing on the windpipe (trachea).These symptoms can be caused by conditions other than cancer too but it is always advisable to go for a proper check-up.

5)  Kidney Cancer

It’s more common in men than in women. Usually cancer only affects one kidney. It’s rare for cancer to be in both kidneys.

There are different types of kidney cancer.

  • Renal Cell Cancers : About 90% of kidney cancers (9 out of 10) are renal cell cancers (RCC). They start in the cortex of the kidney. There are different types of RCC. The most common type is clear cell renal cancer. Less common types are papillary renal cell cancer, chromophobe renal cell cancer and collecting duct renal cell cancer.
     
  • Ureter and Renal Pelvis or Transition
     
  • Rarely, very young children and adults develop a type of kidney cancer called Wilms’ tumour (or nephroblastoma). The children’s cancer and leukaemia group (CCLG) have an information sheet about Wilms’ tumour.

Small kidney cancers don’t usually cause symptoms. They are often diagnosed by chance. For example, when people are having tests or scans for some other reason.

Symptoms

  • blood in the urine (this is the most common symptom)
     
  • dull pain in the side between the upper abdomen and back
     
  • high temperature, night sweats and feeling very tired
     
  • losing weight for no obvious reason• lump in the tummy area, side or back.

 

A rare type of myeloma called non-secretory myeloma produces few or no immunoglobulin chains.

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