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What are the components of bone structure?

Components of human bone

External appearance of a person depends on a basic bone structure. Bones are organs in the body which is made of the solid substance such as collagen (protein) and various minerals like calcium and phosphate that makes the bone strong and masculine. All these material (substance) provide different character to the bones. Bone strength depends not only on the quantity of bone tissue but also on the quality, which is characterized by the geometry and the shape of bones, the microarchitecture of the trabecular bones, the turnover, the mineral, and the collagen.

Components of a Bone

Combination of collagen and calcium makes bone strong and flexible that can resist any unintentional hit and ruptures. Bone is living growing tissue which contains 99.5% of the total calcium in the body. Calcium phosphate is a mineral that adds strength and hardens the framework. Collagen is a protein that provides elastic structure.

Depending on the orientation of collagen fibres, two types of bone can be distinguished: lamellar bone (cortical bone) and non lamellar (trabecular or cancellous bone), which is found in vertebrae, at the ends of long bones, the mammalian foetus, at fracture joints, and in many lower vertebrates.

There are three types of hollow space found in the bone; Haversian canals, marrow cavities, and the lacuna, which include the bone cells (osteocytes) out of which canalicular (small tunnels) expand. The spaces between the bones are filled with fluid called bone marrow cells, which make the blood and some fat cells.

The bones in the skeleton are not all solid. The outside cortical bone is solid bone with only a few small canals. The insides of the bone contain trabecular bone which is like a honeycomb (structure of rows of hexagonal wax cells).

The outside of the bone consists of a layer of connective tissue called the periosteum. The external covering of the long bone is compact bone, then a deeper layer of cancellous bone (spongy bone) which contains in the medullary cavity the bone marrow.

Bones vary in shape and size but have the same construction and task. The adult human skeleton is made up of 206 bones. Joints between bones in the body are important too as they play a key role of moving body parts.


Collagen (protein) is found in the bones, muscles, skin, tendons and ligaments throughout the body. It is the main component of connective tissue and makes up roughly 30% of the body proteins. It is the substance that holds the body together.

Collagen is a part of the connective tissue that in the skin helps in firmness, suppleness and constant renewal of skin cells. Collagen is very important for skin elasticity. Ligaments are another type of connective tissue that attach two bones and therefore hold the joints together.

Collagen production reduces with age and exposure to other reasons such as smoking and UV rays.


Calcium in the bones plays significant role to make the body muscles, nerves, and cells work normally. Calcium gets deposited in the bones and is major storage location in the body. These minerals (Calcium as well as phosphorus) are important to have healthy bones.

Body has a self mechanism to frequently use little quantity of calcium from the bones and substitute it with new calcium, which is called a bone "remodeling" process. If the body removes more calcium from bones than it replaces, they slowly become weaker and more prone to breaking. This is called losing bone mass. If this bone mass is regularly at loss, the bones become weak and porous from within.

Calcium helps in tightening the body muscle, sending signals through the nerves and release of hormones. Construction and maintenance of bones is due to calcium in the body, while vitamin D helps the body to absorb calcium successfully. Together these two nutrients protect the bones.



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