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Bone marrow transplant

The word ‘Malignant’ is derived from the Latin script ‘malignancy’ which is combination of two words, (male) meaning ‘badly’ + (gnus) that is ‘born’. In medical context, this refers to a condition that is hazardous to health and becomes worse with time. A malignant tumour (having cancerous cells) spread rapidly into nearby tissues. Though malignancy is considered to be identical with cancer, but this is not true. There are some medical conditions which are not cancerous. Malignant hypertension (high blood pressure) and malignant hyperthermia are such examples wherein malignant word is used but it is not cancer disease. Malignant hyperthermia denotes to a critical condition of high fever developed during surgery with general anesthesia.

Malignant Conditions 

1.  Multiple Myeloma (MM)

Multiple myeloma is a cancer formed by malignant plasma cells (white blood cell). Plasma cells help in fighting infections by making antibodies that recognize and attack germs. Multiple myeloma causes cancer cells to accumulate in the bone marrow, where they crowd out healthy blood cells.

The treatment for multiple myeloma may include chemotherapy, Radiation. Surgery and Stem cell transplant.

2. Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma  

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (sometimes called NHL, or just lymphoma) is a cancer that starts in cells called lymphocytes, which are part of the body’s immune system. The condition occurs when the body produces too many abnormal lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell.

Treatments may include medication, chemotherapy, radiation therapy and stem-cell transplant.

3. Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

Hodgkin lymphoma, also called Hodgkin disease, is a cancer of the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system forms part of the immune system. Hodgkin lymphoma arises when developing lymphocytes undergo a malignant change, and multiply in an uncontrolled way.

Often there will be non-painful enlarged lymph nodes in the neck, under the arm, or in the groin. As the cancer progresses, it limits the body's ability to fight infection.

Hodgkin lymphoma is distinguished from all other types of lymphoma because of the presence of a special kind of cancer cell called a Reed-Sternberg cell.

Stem-cell transplant may be required in some cases besides chemotherapy and radiation.

4. Acute Myeloid Leukemia

(AML) It is a cancer of the myeloid line of blood cells, characterized by the rapid growth of abnormal white blood cells that build up in the bone marrow and interfere with the production of normal blood cells

AML progresses rapidly, with myeloid cells interfering with the production of normal white blood cells, red blood cells and platelets.

Treatments include chemotherapy, other drug therapy and stem-cell transplants.

5. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

(CML) Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) is a type of cancer that affects the blood and bone marrow. In CML the bone marrow produces too many white cells, called granulocytes. These cells, sometimes called blasts or leukaemic blasts, gradually crowd the bone marrow, interfering with normal blood cell production.

Chronic myeloid leukaemia typically affects older adults. It's caused by a chromosome mutation that occurs spontaneously.

Treatment include targeted drugs, stem-cell transplant, chemotherapy and biological therapy.

6. Primary Myelofibrosis

It is a serious bone marrow disorder that disrupts body's normal blood cell production (haematopoiesis) resulting in extensive scarring (formation of fibrous tissue) within the bone marrow.

Myelofibrosis and Myeloid Metaplasia are the terms used synonymously. Similarly ‘Agnogenic Myeloid Metaplasia’ and ‘Myelofibrosis with Myeloid Metaplasia (MMM) are also other names referred for primary Myelofibrosis.

Treatment of Myelofibrosis depends on the particular symptom. Chemotherapy (anti-cancer drugs), steroids, surgery, blood transfusions and stem cell transplant in case of very low red blood cell count (anaemia) are usual therapeutic methods.

7. Neuroblastoma 

It’s a type of cancer that forms in certain types of nerve tissue found in an embryo or fetus. The term ‘neuro’ refers to nerves, while ‘blastoma’ refers to a cancer that affects immature or developing cells. This type of cancer occurs most often in infants and young children. It starts from small glands on top of the kidneys (adrenal glands), but can also develop in the neck, chest, abdomen, stomach, or spine. There may be a lump or compression of tissues in the affected area.
Neuroblastoma usually requires surgery, chemotherapy and sometimes radiotherapy and stem cell transplantation.

8. Congenital Neutropenia 

It is an inherited disorder that causes recurring infections. People with this condition have a shortage (deficiency) of neutrophils, a type of white blood cell that plays a role in inflammation and in fighting infection.

In adults, a count of 1,500 neutrophils per microlitre of blood or less is considered to be neutropenia, with any count below 500 per microlitre of blood regarded as a severe case. In severe cases, even bacteria that are normally present in the mouth, skin, and gut can cause serious infection.

Neutropenia can be temporary (acute) or long-lasting (chronic). The condition is also split into congenital (present from birth) and acquired neutropenia (develops later in life).

Treatment of severe chronic neutropenia should focus on prevention of infections.

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