What are the Basic Terms used in Cancer?
Terms or words that are used in a medical context are different from everyday language and have specific meaning. Here are some of the basic words or terms to provide better understanding about the cancer disease and the treatment.
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52. Fanconi-Anemia: This is non-cancerous and rare blood disorder found in children that involves bone marrow. Hence the treatment requires bone marrow transplant.
53. Family History: In medical or health condition reference, family history means the diseases and blood disorders a person carries in his/her genes. This helps the doctor to determine the probability of having cancer.
54. Fractions (RT): Radiotherapy dose is divided into a number of smaller doses (known as fractions) to reduce the risk of side effects. There is normally one fraction per day.
55. Fracture: A break in bone or cartilage.
56. Flow-Cytometry: It is a method used to assess the threat of cancer recurrence by calculating the quantity of DNA in cells. If cells are in unusually less or more then reappearance of cancer is more likely. This popular laser-based technology is specifically helpful to confirm return of prostate, breast and bladder cancers.
57. Genes: This means inherited component in one’s stem cells. Each gene has a code for a specific protein.
58. Granulocyte: This is a type of white blood cell characterized by the presence of granules in the cytoplasm. It consists of infection-fighting cells such as basophil, eosinophil and neutrophil.
59. Haematology: In medical science research study, the subject which focus on blood tissues and bone marrow is called haematology.
60. Histopathology: It is a name given to the study of cells describing about the disease. The word Histopathology is combination of two separate words, (i) Histology which is microscopic study of cells / tissues and (ii) Pathology that is the study of the disease. The detailed report based on these two studies help the doctor to confirm diagnosis done by laboratory tests and microscopic examination of the cells.
61. Hodgkin's-Disease : A malignancy of the lymph tissue (lymphoma). It is characterised by progressive, painless enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymph tissue.
62. Hypercalcemia: A kind of blood disorder where calcium level goes high resulting weak bones which further leads to many diseases including bone cancer.
63. Hyper-fractionated-Radiotherapy: This refers to radiotherapy treatment in which rays are used in proportion per day.
64. Hypophosphatemia: This demotes to health condition where phosphate levels are unusually low in the blood.
65. Immune-System: This is a body self defensive mechanism system that defends the body against infection, disease, and foreign substances. It can be improved in many different ways to fight cancer cells.
66. Immunotherapy: Treatment of disease by stimulating the body's own immune system which is used for cancer cure.
67. Interferons: Proteins produced by the body with the specific purpose of regulating cell functions. Interferons are produced in the laboratory in large quantities, and are sometimes used in the treatment of certain cancers.
68. Intravenous (IV): Intravenous means into vein.
69. Invasive Cancer: This is also known as infiltrating cancer. This is the type of cancer that develop on the outer layer of the tissue and these cancer cells can multiply to other body parts.
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